Year 2018 Vol. 26 No 4




Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan,
The Russian Federation

Objective. To reveal the anatomic-histological characteristics of the anterior tibial muscle in automatic combined distraction osteosynthesis with a rate of three millimeters (mm) per day.
Methods. The anatomical and histological characteristics of the anterior tibial muscle were studied in the elongation of the tibia of the dogs (n = 8) using the technique of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis according to Ilizarov combined with tibial intramedullary reinforcement with hydroxyapatite-coated titanium rod. Distraction rate: three mm per day for 120 sessions automatically. Consolidation of the distraction regenerated bone occurred after 13.834.02 days. The device fixation was discontinued in this period. At the end of the distraction period and 90 days after cessation of fixation with the apparatus, a macroscopic and histological examination of the anterior tibial muscle of the elongated segment and contralateral muscle of the same type was performed. Additionally, the general condition of the animals and the function of the limb were evaluated.
Results. During the experiments, complications of an infectious and neurological nature, the death of animals was not revealed. The supporting function of the limb was preserved. There was no formation of equinus setting of the foot. Under the new conditions of distraction, there were no irreversible destructive changes in the anterior tibial muscle. Histologically, the polygonality of the muscle fiber profiles and transverse striation persisted. There was no pathological increase in the width of connective tissue layers. The signs of activization of angio- and neomyohistogenesis were revealed as evidenced by the presence of myosatellite cells, the appearance of a large number of microvessels, newly formed muscle fibers. Macroscopically, the volume and length of the muscle belly were increased at all the stages of the experiment, and the color corresponded to the not lengthened muscle.
Conclusions. With automatic lengthening of limb bones at an increased rate and with high fractionality in combination with intramedullary bioactive reinforcement, favorable conditions are created not only for osteogenesis, but also for the growth and adaptation of soft tissues.

Keywords: experiment on animals, lengthening, osteogenesis, bioactive implant, skeletal muscle, histology
p. 421-430 of the original issue
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Address for correspondence:
640014, The Russian Federation,
Kurgan, M. Ulyanova Str., 6,
Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center
Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Experimental Laboratory,
Tel. office: +7(3522) 41-52-73,
Natalia A. Kononovich
Information about the authors:
Popkov Arnold V., MD, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Laboratory of Correction of Deformities and Lengthening of Limbs, Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan, Russian Federation.
Filimonova Galina N., PhD, Chief Researcher of the Morphology Laboratory, Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan, Russian Federation.
Kononovich Natalia A., PhD, Leading Researcher of the Experimental Laboratory, Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan, Russian Federation.
Popkov Dmitry A., MD, Head of the Clinic of Neuroorthopaedics, Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan, Russian Federation.
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