Year 2021 Vol. 29 No 1




Samara State Medical University 1, Samara,
The Russian Federation
Vitebsk State Medical University 2, Vitebsk,
The Republic of Belarus

Today, a wide spectrum of surgical techniques for the treatment of patients with refractory persistent venous trophic ulcers of the lower extremities based on the generally accepted standards are proposed. The main aim of surgical therapy is the elimination of the lower extremity venous reflux so that the solution of this problem significantly reduces the incidence rate of recurrent ulceration in comparison with the conservative therapy alone. In addition to classical varicose vein surgery, the current options of the endovenous interventions are available: endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), mechanochemical ablation (MOCA), foam sclerotherapy or cyanoacrylate embolization. The most preferable method of a local surgical correction of the refractory venous trophic ulcers is layer-by-layer dermatolypectomy (shave therapy) in combination with simultaneous autodermoplasty with free split perforated cutaneous flap. The remote results with a healing rate of over 80% cannot be achieved with any other method. Subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) in the presence of an epithelialized or open trophic ulcer is used for correction of pathological venous reflux in the case when endovasal and minimally invasive techniques of obliteration cannot be applied. The shin fasciotomy is used to relieve pressure in the diagnosed muscle compartment. Lower extremity fasciotomy for acute compartment syndrome is currently performed in case of special indications for the treatment of deep transfascial necrosis, recurrence of trophic ulcers after shave therapy, severe calcification of the shin tissues and correction of chronic venous compartment syndrome. Apart from the optimal choice of surgical treatment the remote healing rates of venous trophic ulcers depend on standardized in-patient treatment and care for wound in the postoperative period, followed by outpatient medical rehabilitation.

Keywords: chronic venous diseases, venous trophic ulcers of the lower limbs, chronic venous compartment syndrome, vein surgery, endovenous therapy, shave therapy, endoscopic dissection of perforating veins, fasciotomy
p. 75-89 of the original issue
  1. Mumme A. Operative phlebologie: vielfalt in der phlebologie. Phlebologie. 2019;48(03):141-42. doi: 10.1055/a-0890-5584
  2. Baber JT Jr, Mao J, Sedrakyan A, Connolly PH, Meltzer AJ. Impact of provider characteristics on use of endovenous ablation procedures in Medicare beneficiaries. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2019 Mar;7(2):203-209.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.09.012
  3. Bosanquet DC, Twine CP. The endovenous literature: a perfect storm of limited effectiveness data, rapid technological evolution and potential conflict of interest. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017 Dec;54(6):771. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.09.009
  4. Rabe E, Guex JJ, Puskas A, Scuderi A, Fernandez Quesada F; VCP Coordinators. Epidemiology of chronic venous disorders in geographically diverse populations: results from the Vein Consult Program. Int Angiol. 2012 Apr;31(2):105-15.
  5. Kotelnikov GP, Losev II, Sizonenko YV. Katorkin S.E. Peculiarities of diagnostics and treatment tactics of patients with combined lesion of the musculoskeletal and the venous systems of the lower limbs. Novosti Khirurgii. 2013;21(3):42-53. doi: 10.18484/2305-0047.2013.3.42 (In Russ.)
  6. Stoffels I, Dissemond J, Klode J. Modern wound surgery-surgical treatment options. Phlebologie-Stuttgart. 2013Jan;42(4):199-204. doi: 10.12687/phleb2149-4-2013
  7. Engelhardt M, Elias K, Augustin M, Debus ES. Erfassung der Lebensqualität bei chronischen Wunden und Gefäßkrankheiten. Gefässchirurgie. 2015;20:10-17. doi: 10.1007 / s00772-014-1405-z
  8. Hermanns HJ. Chirurgie des Ulcus cruris Eine aktuelle Übersicht. Vasomed. 2016;28(04):158-65.
  9. Gohel MS, Barwell JR, Taylor M, Chant T, Foy C, Earnshaw JJ, Heather BP, Mitchell DC, Whyman MR, Poskitt KR. Long term results of compression therapy alone versus compression plus surgery in chronic venous ulceration (ESCHAR): randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):83. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39216.542442.BE
  10. Katorkin SE, Zhukov AA, Kushnarchuk MJ. Combined treatment of vasotrophic ulcers in lower limbs chronic venous insufficiency. Novosti Khirurgii. 2014;22(6):701-709. doi: 10.18484/2305-0047.2014.6.701 (In Russ.)
  11. Diagnostics and Treatment of Chronic Venous Disease: Guidelines of Russian Phlebological Association. Flebologiia. 2018;12(3):146-40. doi: 10.17116/flebo20187031146 (In Russ.)
  12. Shevchenko IuL, Stoiko IuM, Gudymovich VG, Ivanov AK. Complex approach in the treatment of extensive trophic leg ulcers in a multidisciplinary hospital. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2014;7(3):221-227 doi: 10.18499/2070-478X-2014-7-3-221-227 (In Russ.)
  13. Finlayson KJ, Courtney MD, Gibb MA, OBrien JA, Parker CN, Edwards HE. The effectiveness of a four-layer compression bandage system in comparison with Class 3 compression hosiery on healing and quality of life in patients with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Int Wound J. 2014 Feb;11(1):21-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2012.01033.x
  14. Cohen JM, Akl EA, Kahn SR. Pharmacologic and compression therapies for postthrombotic syndrome: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2):308-20. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-1175
  15. Coleridge-Smith P, Lok C, Ramelet AA. Venous leg ulcer: a meta-analysis of adjunctive therapy with micronized purified flavonoid fraction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005 Aug;30(2):198-208. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.04.017
  16. Andreozzi GM. Sulodexide in the treatment of chronic venous disease. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2012 Apr 1;12(2):73-81. doi: 10.2165/11599360-000000000-00000
  17. Opletalová K, Blaizot X, Mourgeon B, Chene Y, Creveuil C, Combemale P, Laplaud AL, Sohyer-Lebreuilly I, Dompmartin A. Maggottherapyforwounddebridement: arandomized multicenter trial. Arch Dermatol. 2012 Apr;148(4):432-38. doi: 10.1001/archdermatol.2011.1895
  18. Hermanns HJ. Chirurgie des Ulcus cruris. Gefässchirurgie. 2010 Jul;15(4):273-87. doi: 10.1007/s00772-010-0826-6
  19. Schwahn-Schreiber C. Surgery of ulcus cruris venosum. Phlebologie-Stuttgart. 2010 Jun;39(3):156-62. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1622306
  20. Hermanns HJ, Hermanns A, Waldhausen P. Therapy-resistant Ulcera cruris et pedis in ludicrous foot deformity. Phlebologie. 2011;40(06):334-36. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1621788
  21. van Gent WB, Catarinella FS, Lam YL, Nieman FH, Toonder IM, van der Ham AC, Wittens CH. Conservative versus surgical treatment of venous leg ulcers: 10-year follow up of a randomized, multicenter trial. Phlebology. 2015 Mar;30(1 Suppl):35-41. doi: 10.1177/0268355514568848
  22. Padberg FT. Surgical intervention in venous ulceration. Cardiovasc Surg. 1999 Jan;7(1):83-90. doi: 10.1016/s0967-2109(98)00034-9
  23. Gallenkemper G. Diagnostik und Therapie des Ulcus cruris venosum. Aktuelle Dermatologie. 2009;35(06):221-24. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1119687
  24. Sushkov SA, Kukhtenkov PA, Khmelnikov VIa. Pervyi opyt primeneniia posloinoi dermatolipektomii (shave-therapy) pri lechenii khronicheskoi venoznoi nedostatochnosti. Novosti Khirurgii. 2007;15(1):53-57. (In Russ.)
  25. Hermanns HJ. Standards bei der operativen Behandlung des Ulcus cruris. Phlebologie. 2019;48(03):161-69. doi: 10.1055/a-0887-4656
  26. Kröger K, Assenheimer B, Bültemann A, Gerber V, Hoppe HD, Schwarzkopf A. Wundversorgung auf dem Niveau einer S3-Leitlinie Und was nun? Wund Management. 2012;(06):252-54.
  27. Hach W, Mumme A, Hach-Wunderle V (Hrsg). Venen Chirurgie. Operative, interventionelle und konservative Aspekte. 3. Auflage. Stuttgart: Schattauer; 2012.
  28. Hach W, Schwahn-Schreiber C, Kirschner P, Nestle HW. Die krurale Fasziektomie zur Behandlung des inkurablen Gamaschenulkus (Chronisches Faszienkompressionssydrom). Gefäßchirurgie. 1997;2:101-7.
  29. Schmidt AH. Acute Compartment Syndrome. Orthop Clin North Am. 2016 Jul;47(3):517-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ocl.2016.02.001
  30. Wang SM, Kim M. Compartment syndrome after varicose vein surgery evidenced by CT images. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2016 Mar;15(1):71-73. doi: 10.1177/1534734614555003
  31. Edigin E, Shaka H. Idiopathic acute compartment syndrome of the leg with incidental deep venous thrombosis: a case report. Cureus. 2019 Jul 12;11(7):e5130. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5130
  32. Hach W, Gerngroß H, Präve F, Sterk J, Willy Ch, Hach-Wunderle V. Kompartmentsyndrome in der Phlebologie. Phlebologie. 2000;29(01):1-11. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1617337
  33. Schmeller W, Roszinski S. Shave therapy for surgical treatment of persistent venous ulcer with large superficial dermatoliposclerosis. Hautarzt. 1996 Sep;47(9):676-81. doi: 10.1007/s001050050488
  34. Schmeller W, Gaber Y, Gehl HB. Shave therapy is a simple, effective treatment of persistent venous leg ulcers. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Aug;39(2 Pt 1):232-38. doi: 10.1016/s0190-9622(98)70081-7
  35. Quaba AA, McDowall RA, Hackett MEJ. Layered shaving of venous ulcers. Br J Plast Surg. 1987;40(1):68-72. doi: 10.1016/0007-1226(87)90014-2
  36. Schmeller W, Gaber Y. Persistierendes Ulcus cruris und chronisches venöses Kompartmentsyndrom. Phlebologie. 2001;30(03):75-80. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1617272
  37. Hermanns HJ, Gallenkämper G, Kanya S, Waldhausen P. Die Shave-Therapie im Konzept der operativen Behandlung des therapieresistenten Ulcus cruris venosum. Phlebologie. 2005;34(04):209-215. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1621564
  38. Obermayer A, Göstl K, Walli G, Benesch T. Chronic venous leg ulcers benefit from surgery: long-term results from 173 legs. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Sep;44(3):572-79. doi: 10.1016 / j.jvs.2006.05.039
  39. van Gent WB, Catarinella FS, Lam YL, Nieman FH, Toonder IM, van der Ham AC, Wittens CH. Conservative versus surgical treatment of venous leg ulcers: 10-year follow up of a randomized, multicenter trial. Phlebology. 2015 Mar;30(1 Suppl):35-41. doi: 10.1177/0268355514568848
  40. Kahle B. Stellenwert der Schaumsklerosierung in der Behandlung des Ulcus cruris venosum. Phlebologie. 2010;39(03):152-55. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1622308
  41. Seager MJ, Busuttil A, Dharmarajah B, Davies AH. Editors Choice A Systematic Review of Endovenous Stenting in Chronic Venous Disease Secondary to Iliac Vein Obstruction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016 Jan;51(1):100-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.09.002
  42. Schmedt CG, Sroka R, Sadeghi M, Steckmeier BM, Hupp T. Neue entwicklungen der endovenösen lasertherapie. Gefäßchirurgie. 2010;15:125-32. doi: 10.1007/s00772-009-0759-0
  43. Pannier F, Rabe E. Endovenöse Lasertherapie mit dem 980-nm-Diodenlaser bei Ulcus cruris veno-sum. Phlebologie. 2007;36(04):179-85. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1622181
  44. Hauer G. Endoscopic subfascial discussion of perforating veins--preliminary report. Vasa. 1985;14(1):59-61. [Article in German]
  45. Vashist MG, Malik V, Singhal N. Role of subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) in management of perforator incompetence in varicose veins: A prospective randomized study. Indian J Surg. 2014 Apr;76(2):117-23. Published online 2012 Jul 5. doi: 10.1007/s12262-012-0675-5
  46. Sahoo MR, Misra L, Deshpande S, Mohanty SK, Mohanty SK. Subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery: a safe and novel minimal invasive procedure in treating varicose veins in 2nd trimester of pregnancy for below knee perforator incompetence. J Minim Access Surg. 2018 Jul-Sep;14(3):208-12. doi: 10.4103/jmas.JMAS_107_17
  47. Obermayer A, Göstl K, Partsch H, Benesch T. Venous reflux surgery promotes venous leg ulcer healing despite reduced ankle brachial pressure index. Int Angiol. 2008 Jun;27(3):239-46.
  48. Hach W, Hach-Wunderle V. Neue Aspekte zum chronisch venösen Kompartment syndrom. Gefäss Chirurgie. 2001;6:164-69. doi: 10.1007/s007720100147
  49. Hach W. Wie es zur paratibialen Fasziotomie kam. Phlebologie. 2004; 33(03):110-14. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1617282
  50. Schwahn-Schreiber C, Schmeller W, Gaber Y. Langzeitergebnisse nach Shave-Therapie bzw. kruraler Fasziektomie bei persistierenden venösen Ulzera. Phlebologie. 2006;35(02):89-91. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1622134
  51. Obermayer A, Maier A, Zacherl J, Hitzl W, Steinbacher F. Lateral fasciectomy sparing the superficial peroneal nerve with simultaneous graft in non-healing lateral leg ulcers of diverse vascular origins: surgical technique, short- and long-term results from 44 legs. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016 Aug 01;52(2):225-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.02.023
  52. Hermanns HJ, Waldhausen P. Shave therapy for venous ulcers-a review and current results. Phlebolymphology. 2009;16(2):253-58.
  53. Webster J, Scuffham P, Sherriff KL, Stankiewicz M, Chaboyer WP. Negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts and surgical wounds healing by primary intention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Apr 18;(4):CD009261. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009261.pub2
  54. Leclercq A, Labeille B, Perrot JL, Vercherin P, Cambazard F. Skin graft secured by VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy in chronic leg ulcers: a controlled randomized study. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Jan;143(1):3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annder.2015.06.022
  55. Lokaltherapie chronischer Wunden bei Patienten mit den Risiken periphere arterielle Verschlusskrankheit, Diabetes mellitus, chronisch venöse Insuffizienz. AWMF LL-Register 091/001, 2012. S3. AWMF online Das Portal der wissenschaftlichen Medizin.
Address for correspondence:
443013, Russian Federation,
Samara, Karl Marks pr., 165b,
Samara State Medical University,
the Department and Clinic of Hospital Surgery
Tel. +7 927 206-71-02,
Katorkin Sergei E.
Information about the authors:
Katorkin Sergei E., MD, Associate Professor, Head of the Department and Clinic of Hospital Surgery, Samara State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Samara, Russian Federation.
Sushkou Siarhei A., PhD, Associate Professor, Vice-Rector of Scientific and Research Affairs, Vitebsk State Medical University, Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus.
Kushnarchuk Mikhail Y., Cardiovascular Surgeon, the Department of Vascular Surgery of the Department and Clinic of Hospital Surgery, Samara State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Samara, Russian Federation.
Contacts | ©Vitebsk State Medical University, 2007-2023