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2014 г. №4 Том 22

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18484/2305-0047.2014.4.481   |  

Е.А. ШЛЯХТУHОВ, В.М. СЕМЕHОВ

МОЛЕКУЛЯРHО-ГЕHЕТИЧЕСКАЯ ДИАГHОСТИКА HЕКОТОРЫХ ЗЛОКАЧЕСТВЕHHЫХ СОЛИДHЫХ ОПУХОЛЕЙ

УО «Витебский государственный медицинский университет»,
Республика Беларусь

В статье представлен обзор современной литературы по вопросам молекулярно-генетической диагностике некоторых злокачественных солидных опухолей. Определены возможности полимеразной цепной реакции (PCR) в идентификации различных опухоль-ассоциированных генов. Представлена характеристика, локализация, функции ряда генов, таких как ген тирозиназы (TYR), сурвивина (BIRC5), эпидермального фактора роста (ErbB-2/HER2-Neu), а также генов «домашнего хозяйства» (GAPDH, 18S rRNA). Определено их клиническое значение, прогностическая значимость при различных видах злокачественных опухолей, таких как меланома, рак молочной железы, рак легких, рак яичников, рак толстой и прямой кишки и др. Исследование данных генов является одним из вариантов диагностики минимальной остаточной болезни, когда существует возможность диагностировать прогрессирование опухолевого процесса еще на этапе наличия единичных опухолевых клеток. При помощи PCR возможно определение указанных генов как непосредственно в опухолевой ткани, полученной при биопсии, так и в очищенных опухолевых клетках. Для ряда опухолей возможно идентификация опухоль-ассоциированных генов в периферической крови. Исследования, направленные на изучение экспрессии опухоль-ассоциированных генов являются перспективными и актуальными в целях индивидуализации лечебной (хирургической, нео- и адъювантой лекарственной) тактики в отношении пациентов, страдающих злокачественными опухолями.

Ключевые слова: рак, опухолевый маркер, генетическая диагностика
с. 481 – 487 оригинального издания
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Адрес для корреспонденции:
210023, Республика Беларусь, г. Витебск, пр. Фрунзе, д. 27, УО «Витебский государственный медицинский университет», кафедра онкологии с курсами ЛД, ЛТ, ФПК и ПК,
e-mail: Evgenij-shlyakhtunov@yandex.ru,
Шляхтунов Евгений Александрович
Cведения об авторах:
Шляхтунов Е.А., к.м.н., доцент кафедры онкологии с курсами ЛД, ЛТ, ФПК и ПК УО «Витебский государственный медицинский университет».
Семенов В.М., д.м.н., профессор, декан лечебного факультета УО «Витебский государственный медицинский университет».
Контакты | ©Витебский государственный медицинский университет, 2007