Year 2022 Vol. 30 No 6

REVIEWS

O.N. GANUSEVICH 1, T.N. NESTEROVICH 2, I.V. FEDORKEVICH 1

CURRENT APPROACHES TO SYSTEMIC TREATMENT OF SKIN MELANOMA

E Gomel Regional Clinical Oncological Dispensary 1,
EE Gomel State Medical University 2, Gomel,
Republic of Belarus

Melanoma accounts for about 10% of all diagnosed skin cancers. However, its aggressive course, due to the high ability for regional and distant multiple metastasis, leading to high mortality rates and makes the issue of treatment relevant. Understanding of molecular biology and immunological characteristics of the tumor contributed to the emergence of targeted drugs (BRAF, MEK inhibitors) and immuno-oncological drugs (Checkpoint inhibitors as a type of f immunotherapy - blockers CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyteassociated protein 4), PD-1 (programmed death 1) and its ligands (PD-L1). They block proteins that stop the immune system from attacking the cancer cells and made it possible to enhance tumor response to treatment and significantly improve patient outcomes. Currently, the main approach in systemic treatment is not to stimulate the immune response, but to remove factors that inhibit its development, the so-called immune checkpoint inhibitors. The worst prognosis in patients with metastatic melanoma, the overall 5-year survival rate previously was 9-20%; at present, the use of current systemic therapy gives a chance of about 50% of patients to live for 5 or more years. The systemic treatment of metastatic melanoma has improved considerably with the introduction of new, targeted substances and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Keywords: melanoma, metastases, systemic therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy
p. 583-591 of the original issue
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Address for correspondence:
246012, Republic of Belarus,
Gomel, Meditsinskaia st., 2,
Gomel State Medical University,
Department of Oncology,
tel. office: +375 232 491154,
mob.: +375 29 7309039,
e-mail: nesterovichtanya10@gmail.com,
Nesterovich Tatyana N.
Information about the authors:
Ganusevich Olga N., Oncologist-Surgeon of the Oncological Department of General Oncology and Rehabilitation of the Institution Gomel Regional Clinical Oncological Dispensary, Gomel, Republic of Belarus.
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2202-2254.
Nesterovich Tatyana N., Assistant of the Department of Oncology of the Educational Institution Gomel State Medical University, Gomel, Republic of Belarus.
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5692-1042.
Fedorkevich Igor V., Oncologist-Surgeon, Head of the Oncological Department of General Oncology and Rehabilitation of the Institution Gomel Regional Clinical Oncological Dispensary, Gomel, Republic of Belarus.
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7695-8042.
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