Year 2020 Vol. 28 No 2




I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow,
The Russian Federation

The main surgical operations in the birth-assigned male patient being affirmed as female include feminizing of the chest (breast augmentation) and genital reconstruction. Woman-shape breast formation is an important part of feminization for most trans-women, more often augmentation mammoplasty is performed first. Significantly increased requirements for the aesthetic result of any sex reassignment operations in this group of patients should be noted.
The purpose of this review is to summarize modern concepts and standards for augmentation mammoplasty in transgender individuals who want to change their sex from male to female. Knowledge of these aspects is necessary to achieve the best aesthetic result and patients satisfaction, ensuring their psychosocial and physical well-being. The following sections have been studied and presented in details: proportions of the ideal breast, breast development in transsexuals under the influence of hormonal therapy, anatomical differences between the male and female chest, size and position of the nipple-areola complex, choice of operative access and the implant position, choosing the volume and shape of the implant, formation and fixation of the inframammary fold, possible complications after augmentation mammoplasty, satisfaction with the results of the operation.

Keywords: transgender, transsexual, breast augmentation, nipple-areola complex, inframammary fold, hormonal therapy, quality of life, sex reassignment surgery
p. 207-221 of the original issue
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Address for correspondence:
119991, Russian Federation,
Moscow, Trubetskaya Str., 8,
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow
State Medical University,
Department of Oncology,
Radiotherapy and Plastic Surgery.
Tel.: +7 917 914 26 06,
Albina A. Zakirova
Information about the authors:
Istranov Andrey L., MD, Professor of the Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Plastic Surgery, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
Zakirova Albina A., Resident Doctor of the Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Plastic Surgery, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
Isakova Yuliya I., Resident Doctor of the Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Plastic Surgery, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
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